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Naum Lukin
Naum Lukin

A New Threat Against Home: Americans Now Have More To Worry About Than War _HOT_

European powers struggled to adapt to the brutality of modern war. Until the spring of 1917, the Allies possessed few effective defensive measures against submarine attacks. German submarines sank more than a thousand ships by the time the United States entered the war. The rapid addition of American naval escorts to the British surface fleet and the establishment of a convoy system countered much of the effect of German submarines. Shipping and military losses declined rapidly, just as the American army arrived in Europe in large numbers. Although much of the equipment still needed to make the transatlantic passage, the physical presence of the army proved a fatal blow to German war plans.16

A New Threat Against Home: Americans Now Have More to Worry About Than War

Determining appropriate principles and values requires more than a shared understanding of how technological innovations are evolving, how they have been designed, and how they might be used. Such normative reflection also calls for a clear sense of the different values and principles held by various communities worldwide as well as the means and actors by which such values and principles should be protected. It also necessitates going beyond the mere articulation and proliferation of principles to the practical application and acknowledgment of associated challenges and limitations.

The immediate risks and challenges include the expansion of existing cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities into increasingly critical AI-dependent systems (like cloud computing); unintended or intended consequences as AI converges with other technologies including in the biotech and nuclear domains; algorithmic discrimination and biases; weak transparency and accountability in AI decisionmaking processes; overly narrow ways of conceptualizing ethical problems; and limited investment in safety research and protocols. Meanwhile, policymakers are fixated on predictions about how automation will transform industries, the labor force, and existing forms of social and economic organization. Predictions that automation and advanced machine learning may exacerbate economic inequalities in particular have stoked anxiety. Several studies on subjects like the future of work, the future of food, and even the future of humanity seek to allay these concerns, while also highlighting and forecasting risk.60

It is unclear whether or not the erosion of technical and access barriers might lead to the more widespread acquisition and use of biological weapons. While scientific and technical advances may continue to put pressure on the norm against using disease as a weapon, they also can serve as a deterrent. For example, the creation of versatile diagnostic and therapeutic platforms could enable a rapid response to any engineered threat, deterring nefarious actors from considering biology as a potential tool of large-scale terror, as discussed above.145 Yet, without accompanying advances to monitor compliance and differentiate between offensive and defensive (or peaceful) intent, advances in biotechnology could make it harder to identify violations of the BWC.

"I was raised in a little town of which most of you have never heard. But in the West it is a famous place. It is called Abilene, Kansas. We had as our marshal for a long time a man named Wild Bill Hickok. If you don't know anything about him, read your Westerns more. Now that town had a code, and I was raised as a boy to prize that code. It was: meet anyone face to face with whom you disagree. You could not sneak up on him from behind, or do any damage to him, without suffering the penalty of an outraged citizenry. If you met him face to face and took the same risks he did, you could get away with almost anything, as long as the bullet was in the front."Remarks Upon Receiving America's Democratic Legacy Award at a B'nai B'rith Dinner in Honor of the 40th Anniversary of the Anti-Defamation League, 11/23/53

"When I was a boy, I was one of six in my family. We had a quarrel daily as to who could go up and do the chore of bringing the groceries down home. They had a practice then, in grocery stores, that I understand growing efficiency has eliminated -- always hoping that the grocer would say you can have one of the dried prunes out of the barrel over there. But better than that was the dill pickle jar that you could dive into, sometimes arm deep almost, and try to get one. I understand that they are not that accommodating anymore; we have got too efficient. When you go around picking things off the shelf, you pay for them. These, you understand, were free. That meant a lot to young boys to whom a nickel looked about as big as a wheel on a farm wagon."Remarks at the Convention of the National Association of Retail Grocers, 6/16/54

"We have erased segregation in those areas of national life to which Federal authority clearly extends. So doing in this, my friends, we have neither sought nor claimed partisan credit, and all such actions are nothing more -- nothing less than the rendering of justice. And we have always been aware of this great truth: the final battle against intolerance is to be fought -- not in the chambers of any legislature -- but in the hearts of men."Address at the Hollywood Bowl, Beverly Hills, California, 10/19/56 [AUDIO]

"I like to believe that people, in the long run, are going to do more to promote peace than our governments. Indeed, I think that people want peace so much that one of these days governments had better get out of the way and let them have it."Radio and Television Broadcast With Prime Minister Macmillan in London, 8/31/59

"From this day forward, the millions of our school children will daily proclaim in every city and town, every village and rural school house, the dedication of our nation and our people to the Almighty. To anyone who truly loves America, nothing could be more inspiring than to contemplate this rededication of our youth, on each school morning, to our country's true meaning.Especially is this meaningful as we regard today's world. Over the globe, mankind has been cruelly torn by violence and brutality and, by the millions, deadened in mind and soul by a materialistic philosophy of life. Man everywhere is appalled by the prospect of atomic war. In this somber setting, this law and its effects today have profound meaning. In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America's heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country's most powerful resource, in peace or in war."Statement by the President Upon Signing Bill to Include the Words "Under God" in the Pledge to the Flag, 6/14/54

"But I noted with real satisfaction how well ex-footballers seemed to have leadership qualifications . . . I believe that football, perhaps more than any other sport, tends to instill in men the feeling that victory comes through hard -- almost slavish -- work, team play, self-confidence, and an enthusiasm that amounts to dedication."At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends, page 16

"Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities. It is two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000 population. It is two fine, fully equipped hospitals. It is some 50 miles of concrete highway. We pay for a single fighter plane with a half million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. This, I repeat, is the best way of life to be found on the road. the world has been taking. This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron."Address "The Chance for Peace" Delivered Before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, 4/16/53 [AUDIO]

"Now this brings me to my main topic -- our military strength -- more specifically, how to stay strong against threat from outside, without undermining the economic health that supports our security."Address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors and the International Press Institute, 4/17/58

Our national policy is not directed toward war. Its sole purpose is to keep war away from our country and away from our people. Democracy's fight against world conquest is being greatly aided, and must be more greatly aided, by the rearmament of the United States and by sending every ounce and every ton of munitions and supplies that we can possibly spare to help the defenders who are in the front lines. And it is no more unneutral for us to do that than it is for Sweden, Russia and other nations near Germany, to send steel and ore and oil and other war materials into Germany every day in the week.

The British have received invaluable military support from the heroic Greek army, and from the forces of all the governments in exile. Their strength is growing. It is the strength of men and women who value their freedom more highly than they value their lives.

I have the profound conviction that the American people are now determined to put forth a mightier effort than they have ever yet made to increase our production of all the implements of defense, to meet the threat to our democratic faith.

Thus, the Bush approach of having Ridge coordinate domestic agencies much as the national security adviser coordinates foreign policy agencies makes more sense. His job certainly is more difficult in one key respect: the national security adviser must worry about getting coordinated information to the president in a timely fashion, whereas Ridge must concern himself mainly with how the agencies operate in the field. One factor working in his favor is that September 11 made counterterrorism a priority across all agencies. They not only know that it is a critical mission but also that it is the key to bigger budgets and more authority. The challenge facing Ridge is to forge the channels of formal and informal agency cooperation where they do not exist today-both among domestic agencies and between them and the national security apparatus. Within this coordination framework some agency consolidation may make sense (for example, combining agencies with closely related functions such as the Customs Service, Border Patrol and Coast Guard).


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